Migración de niños y violencia transnacional en Centroamérica y Norteamérica

Kate Swanson, Rebecca María Torres

Resumen


En los últimos años, ha habido un aumento dramático en el número de niños migrantes no acompañados que tratan de entrar en los Estados Unidos. En 2014, la cifra total alcanzó un máximo de 68.000 detenciones, en su mayoría de Centroamérica y México. Desde entonces, el aumento de las estrategias de control de las migraciones en México ha disminuido la capacidad de los jóvenes migrantes no acompañados, para llegar a la frontera con Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, los factores subyacentes que impulsan la migración infantil no han cambiado. Los niños siguen huyendo de altos niveles de violencia, en particular de El Salvador, Honduras y Guatemala, que actualmente están entre los países más violentos del mundo. Con todo, la violencia para los jóvenes no acaba una vez que salen de la frontera de sus países; como los jóvenes toman autobuses, trenes, barcos y camiones al norte, ellos siguen encontrándola en cada paso, a lo largo del camino. Debido al aumento de la militarización y las políticas punitivas de inmigración en los Estados Unidos, los niños migrantes luchan contra más violencia cuando cruzan la frontera de Estados Unidos / México. En este trabajo, examinamos cómo las manifestaciones de violencia matizadas y variadas conforman las vidas y experiencias de los niños migrantes. Si bien la juventud puede escapar de la violencia inmediata y corporal, explicamos cómo las diferentes formas de violencia influyen no sólo en su decisión de irse, sino también en sus viajes y sus encuentros con las políticas de inmigración de México y EEUU. Abogamos por una comprensión más amplia de la violencia que tenga en cuenta cómo las políticas y las prácticas estatales se extienden más allá de las fronteras nacionales y afectan negativamente la vida de los niños migrantes



Citas


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