Capsaicinoids concentration in Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum collected in Tamaulipas, Mexico

Eva Aguirre Hernández, Rubén San Miguel Chávez, Mariana Palma-Tenango, María Eva González-Trujano, Teodoro Medina-Martínez, Gerardo Sánchez-Ramos, Arturo Mora-Olivo, José Guadalupe Martínez-Ávalos

Abstract


HPLC analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicineconcentrations obtained from fruits of Capsicum annuum var. glabrisculum,collected from four localities in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico,was investigated. Selection of localities for this study was carriedout considering that 65% of the people living in them gather wildchilli pepper for either autoconsumption or commercial purposes.An ANOVA analysis was carried out for determining capsaicinoidscomposition variation. Also, a multivariate analysis was carried outusing Pearson correlation and principal components analysis to elucidatethe influence that environmental factors might have on capsaicinoidsconcentration. Fruits from the locality El Gavilán had thehigher concentration of capsaicine among the populations examined.Also, fruits from this location had the higher concentration for bothalcaloids (994 μg/g), and the locality Comas Altas showed the lowerconcentration with 498 μg/g. A positive correlation between capsaicinand dihydrocapsaicin concentrations was found. PCA analysisshowed that altitude, temperature and vegetation were the main factorsresponsible for the production of both alcaloids in C. annuumvar. glabriusculum, and rainfall was the less important variable. Regardingthe effects of altitude on alcaloids production it was foundthat locality El Gavilán, placed 578 m a.s.l., had the higher concentrationfor both alcaloids whereas the locality Comas Altas, placed at65 m a.s.l., showed the lower concentrations. Locality La San Juanaalso had high concentrations of capsaicinoids. Apparently, this wasdue to the microclimate conditions present on the vegetation typeson the above mentioned localities. Results showed that pungencydegree of C. annuum var. glabriusculum fruits was influenced by environmentalfactors such as altitude, temperature and vegetation.


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Phyton. International Journal of Experimental Botany. ISSN print 0031-9457 ISSN en line 1851-5657 Fundación Rómulo Raggio Gaspar Campos 861,  Vicente López, Buenos Aires, Argentina (C.P. 1638) Tel 54 11 4791-0868 / 4796-1456 revistaphyton@fund-romuloraggio.org.ar www.revistaphyton.fund-romuloraggio.org.ar