Economic and Financial Crisis in Argentina: A Novel Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Mortality?

María I. Sosa Liprandi, Mario Racki, Marina Khoury, Ricardo Villareal, Germán Cestari, Eduardo Mele, Alvaro Sosa Liprandi

Abstract


Background

The relationship between the impact generated by diverse

traumatic situations as wars, terrorist attacks and natural

disasters with mortality in different regions of the world

has been documented in clinical and experimental studies. A

recent study showed that, in the absence of natural disasters

or wars, financial crises might have a negative impact on cardiovascular

mortality. The current experience suggests that

financial crises could have a significant influence on health.

Objectives

To describe the trends in cardiovascular mortality rates

(CVMR) in Argentina between 1995 and 2005, and to explore

if there is a close temporal relationship with the changes in

trends of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as indicator of

economic and financial crisis.

Material and Methods

The annual CVMR per 100,000 persons was calculated using

the information obtained from the database of the Ministry

of Health (9th and 10th International Classification of Diseases).

The following causes of death were considered: heart

failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic coronary

artery disease (CAD) and stroke (CVA). The population

estimates used as the denominator were obtained from the

National Institute of Statistics and Censuses. Two economic

crises were identified: the Southeast Asia crisis (1998-1999)

and the end of the convertibility system (2001-2002). Joinpoint

models were used to evaluate changes in trends.

Results

GDP showed an increasing trend (slope = 17.18) from

1995 to 1998, which decreased in the period 1998-2002

(slope = ‑12.90) and increased from 2002 to 2005 (slope =

19.88); CVMR decreased by 24.72% (from 474.9 to 357.5

per 100,000). The joinpoint model identified three slopes in

CVMR: from 1995 to 1997 (‑17.94), a descending slope until

2002 (‑6.8) and an increasing slope until 2005 (slope ‑16.73).

Mortality rates due to HF, MI and CVA had a similar trend,

decreasing by 22.95%, 16.89% and 38.06%, respectively.

Conclusions

The close temporal relationship between the relative increase

in cardiovascular mortality and the reduction of GDP might

consider economic and financial crises as a novel psychosocial

risk factor.


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Revista argentina de cardiología. ISSN en línea 1850-3748. Argentine journal of cardiology (English ed. Online ISSN 2314-2286) Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología. Azcuénaga 980 (C1115AAD),Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, República Argentina. Tel. (54 11) 4961-6027/8/9 Fax: 4961-6020 www.sac.org.ar revista@sac.org.ar