Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk and Detection of Subclinical Carotid Atheromatosis in Middle-aged Postmenopausal Women

Walter Masson, Melina Huerin, Laura Vitagliano, Cecilia Zeballos, Martin Lobo, María Rostan, Alberto Cafferata, Diego Manente



-Bairey Merz CN, Shaw LJ, Reis SE, Bittner V, Kelsey SF, Olson M, et al. Insights from the NHLBI sponsored women’s ischemia syndrome evaluation (WISE) study: part II: gender differences in presentation, diagnosis, and outcome with regard to gender-based pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and macrovascular and microvascular coronary disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:S21-S29.

-Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Adams RJ, Berry JD, Brown TM, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2011 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association.Circulation 2011;123;e18-e209.

-Lerner DJ, Kannel WB. Patterns of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in the sexes: a 26-year follow-up of the Framingham population. Am Heart J. 1986;111:383-390.

-Eaker ED, Chesebro JH, Sacks FM, Wenger NK, Whisnant JP, Winston M. Cardiovascular disease in women. Circulation. 1993:88;1999-2009.

-Murphy E, Steenbergen C. Gender-based differences in mechanisms of protection in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;75:478-486.

-Novella S, Dantas AP, Segarra G, Medina P, Hermenegildo C. Vascular aging in women: is estrogen the fountain of youth? Front Physiol 2012;3:165.

-Nelson HD, Walker M, Zakher B, Mitchell J. Menopausal hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions: A systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:1-10.

-Vaidya D, Becker DM, Bittner V, Mathias RA, Ouyang P. Ageing, menopause, and ischemic heart disease mortality in England, Wales and the United States: modeling study of national mortality data. BMJ 2011;343:d5170.

-Ruan X, Jin J, Hua L, Liu Y, Wang J, Liu S. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in chinese postmenopausal women and the optimum body composition indices to predict it. Menopause. 2010;17:566-570.

-Figueiredo Neto JA, Figueredo ED, Barbosa JB, Barbosa F de F, Costa GR, Nina VJ, et al. Metabolic syndrome and menopause: cross-sectional study in gynecology clinic. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95:339-345.

-Marjani A, Moghasemi S. The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Gorgan. Int J Endocrinol. 2012;2012:953627.

-Royer M, Castelo-Branco C, Blumel JE. The US National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III): Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Latin American women. Climacteric. 2007;10:164-170.

-Matthews KA, Kuller LH, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Chang YF. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors during the perimenopause and postmenopause and carotid artery atherosclerosis in healthy women. Stroke. 2001;32:1104-11.

-Bonithon-Kopp C, Scarabin PY, Darne B, Malmejac A, Guize L. Menopause-related changes in lipoproteins and some other cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Epidemiol. 1990;19:42-48.

-Cavanaugh-Hussey MW, Berry JD, Lloyd-Jones DM. Who exceeds ATP-III risk thresholds? Systematic examination of the effect of varying age and risk factor levels in the ATP-III risk assessment tool. Prev Med. 2008;47:619-623.

-Vasan RS, Sullivan LM, Wilson PW, Sempos CT, Sundstrom J, Kannel WB, Levy D, D’Agostino RB. Relative importance of borderline and elevated levels of coronary heart disease risk factors. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:393-402.

-Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR, He M, Hu Y, Mosley T et al. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Presence or Absence of Plaque Improves Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Risk: The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;5:1600-1607.

-Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, Bezanson JL, Dolor RJ, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women-2011 update. A guideline from the american heart association. Circulation.2011;123:1243-1262.

-Adult Treatment Panel III, Executive summary of the third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. JAMA. 2001;285:2486-97.

-Prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares: guía de bolsillo para la estimación y el manejo del riesgo cardiovascular.Organización Mundial de la Salud, 2008.

-Ridker PM, Cook NR, Lee IM, Gordon D, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, et al. A Randomized Trial of Low-Dose Aspirin in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1293-304.

-Dhangana R, Murphy TP, Zafar AM, Qadeer FF, Cerezo JV, Ristuccia MB. Optimal use of Framingham risk scores to identify individuals for intensive medical risk factor modification. Circulation 2009;120 Suppl:S423

-Ankle Brachial Index Collaboration. Ankle brachial index combined with framingham risk score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;300:197-208.

-Arad Y, Goodman KJ, Roth M, Newstein D, Guerci AD. Coronary calcification, coronary disease risk factors, C-reactive protein, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events: The St. Francis Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:158-65.

-Lorenz MW, Markus HS, Bots ML, Rosvall M, Sitzer M. Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 2007;115:459-67.

-Ganz M, de Brujine M, Dam EB, Pettersen P, Karsdal MA, Christiansen C, et al. Distribution, size, and shape of abdominal aortic calcified deposits and their relationship to mortality in postmenopausal women. Int J Biomed Imaging. 2012;2012:459286.

-Michos ED, Vasamreddy CR, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Moy TF, Fishman EK et al. Women with a low Framingham risk score and a family history of premature coronary heart disease have a high prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Am Heart J 2005;150:1276-81.

-Lakoski SG, Greenland P, Wong ND, Schreiner PJ, Herrington DM, Kronmal RA, Liu K, Blumenthal RS. Coronary artery calcium scores and risk for cardiovascular events in women classified as “low risk” based on Framingham risk score: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2437-2442.

-Stamatelopoulos KS, Armeni E, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kyrkou K, Stellos K, et al. Recently postmenopausal women have the same prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis as age and traditional risk factor matched men. Atherosclerosis. 2012; 221:508-13.

-Lambrinoudaki I, Armeni E, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kouskouni E, Creatsa M, et al. Subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with low to medium calculated cardiovascular risk. Int J Cardiol. 2011; doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.06.063.

-Keidar S, Bogner I, Gamliel-Lazarovich A, Leiba R, Fuhrman B, Kouperberg E. High plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, very low cardiovascular risk profile, and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. J Clin Lipidol. 2009;3:345-50.

Full Text


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Licencia Creative Commons
The documents published in this journal are under the licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-Compartir-Igual 2.5 Argentina.

Revista argentina de cardiología. ISSN en línea 1850-3748. Argentine journal of cardiology (English ed. Online ISSN 2314-2286) Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología. Azcuénaga 980 (C1115AAD),Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, República Argentina. Tel. (54 11) 4961-6027/8/9 Fax: 4961-6020