COVID-19. Review on Its Cardiovascular Impact

Alberto Fernández, José Luis Barisani, Javier Guetta, Martín Bosio, Julio Chertcoff, Javier Marino, Mirta Díez, Adrián Lescano, Luciano Lucas, Enrique Fairman, Jorge Thierer

Abstract


For more than six months, the world has suffered apandemic called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19),which, originating in Wuhan, China, quickly spreadto the rest of the planet. Its causal agent, the severeacute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARSCoV-2), has become a serious threat worldwide, witha distinctive feature, the speed of its transmissionwith concomitant exponential growth of the illness.Although its lethality is less than that of other familymembers, the rapid increase in cases and its impact onthe health systems, leading to an early exhaustion ofresources, means that this virus has clearly surpassedits predecessors.

References


Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579:270-3.

Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2020;17:259-60.

Datos epidemiologicos de la OMS. https://www.who.int/es/

Fuente ministerio de salud de la nación. Argentina.gob.ar/salud/Coronavirus-COVID-19.

Yang J, Zheng Y, Gou X, Pu K, Chen Z, Guo Q, et al. Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;94:91-5.

Madjid M, Safavi-Naeini P, Solomon SD, Vardeny O. Potential Effects of Coronaviruses on the Cardiovascular System: A Review. JAMA Cardiol 2020 Mar 27. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio. 2020.1286. Online ahead of print

Clerkin KJ, Fried JA, Raikhelkar J, Sayer G, Griffin JM, Masoumi A, et al. COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2020;141:1648-55.

De Rosa S, Spaccarotella C, Basso C, Calabro MP, Curcio A, Filardi PP, et al. Reduction of hospitalizations for myocardial infarction in Italy in the COVID-19 era. Eur Heart J. 2020. 41:2083-2088

Krumholz H. Where Have All the Heart Attacks Gone? The New York Times. Published April 6, 2020 Updated May 14, 2020

Driggin E, Madhavan MV, Bikdeli B, Chuich T, Laracy J, Biondi-Zoccai G, et al. Cardiovascular Considerations for Patients, Health Care Workers, and Health Systems During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75:2352-71.

Pappa S, Ntella V, Giannakas T, Giannakoulis VG, Papoutsi E, Katsaounou P. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun. 2020. S0889-1591(20)30845-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.026. Online ahead of print.

Fuster V, Varieur Turco J. COVID-19: A Lesson in Humility and an Opportunity for Sagacity and Hope. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75:2625-6.

Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Emerging coronaviruses: Genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol. 2020;92:418-23.

Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019;17:181-92.

Chan JW, Ng CK, Chan YH, Mok TY, Lee S, Chu SY, et al. Short term outcome and risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Thorax. 2003;58:686-9.

Badawi A, Ryoo SG. Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;49:129-33.

Cai J, Sun W, Huang J, Gamber M, Wu J, He G. Indirect Virus Transmission in Cluster of COVID-19 Cases, Wenzhou, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26:1343-5.

van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1564-7.

Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, et al. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172:577-82.

Zhang S, Diao M, Yu W, Pei L, Lin Z, Chen D. Estimation of the reproductive number of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the probable outbreak size on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: A data-driven analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;93:201-4.

Chan JF, Yip CC, To KK, Tang TH, Wong SC, Leung KH, et al. Improved Molecular Diagnosis of COVID-19 by the Novel, Highly Sensitive and Specific COVID-19-RdRp/Hel Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Validated In Vitro and with Clinical Specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2020; 58(5):e00310-20

Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Kruger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Cell. 2020;181:271-80 e8.

Hanff TC, Harhay MO, Brown TS, Cohen JB, Mohareb AM. Is There an Association Between COVID-19 Mortality and the Renin-Angiotensin System-a Call for Epidemiologic Investigations. Clin Infect Dis. 2020. Mar 26:ciaa329. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa329. Online ahead of print.

Turner AJ, Tipnis SR, Guy JL, Rice G, Hooper NM. ACEH/ACE2 is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:346-53.

Patel VB, Zhong JC, Grant MB, Oudit GY. Role of the ACE2/Angiotensin 1-7 Axis of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Heart Failure. Circ Res. 2016;118:1313-26.

Chen L, Li X, Chen M, Feng Y, Xiong C. The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiovasc Res. 2020;116:1097-100.

Vaduganathan M, Solomon SD. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Covid-19. Reply. N Engl J Med. 2020;382.

Brojakowska A, Narula J, Shimony R, Bander J. Clinical Implications of SARS-Cov2 Interaction with Renin Angiotensin System. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 75:3085-3095

Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson KW, et al. Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA. 2020;323:2052-2059

Mancia G, Rea F, Ludergnani M, Apolone G, Corrao G. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockers and the Risk of Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020. May 1;NEJMoa2006923. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2006923. Online ahead of print.

Mehta N, Kalra A, Nowacki AS, Anjewierden S, Han Z, Bhat P, et al. Association of Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers With Testing Positive for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020. May 5;e201855. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1855. Online ahead of print.

Reynolds HR, Adhikari S, Pulgarin C, Troxel AB, Iturrate E, Johnson SB, et al. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and Risk of Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020. May 1;NEJMoa2008975. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2008975. Online ahead of print.

Mehra MR, Desai SS, Kuy S, Henry TD, Patel AN. Cardiovascular Disease, Drug Therapy, and Mortality in Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020. May 1:NEJMoa2007621. doi: 10.1056 /NEJMoa2007621. Online ahead of print.

Rubin EJ. Expression of Concern: Mehra MR et al. Cardiovascular Disease, Drug Therapy, and Mortality in Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020. Jun 4:NEJMc2021225. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2021225. Online ahead of print.

Vaduganathan M, Vardeny O, Michel T, McMurray JJV, Pfeffer MA, Solomon SD. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1653-9.

Kuster GM, Pfister O, Burkard T, Zhou Q, Twerenbold R, Haaf P, et al. SARS-CoV2: should inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system be withdrawn in patients with COVID-19? Eur Heart J. 2020;41:1801-3.

Murray E, Tomaszewski M, Guzik TJ. Binding of SARS-CoV-2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: clinical implications. Cardiovasc Res. 2020;116(7):e87-e9.

Chen L, Hao G. The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in coronaviruses/influenza viruses and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Res. 2020. Apr 8;cvaa093. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa093. Online ahead of print.

https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2020/03/17/08/59/hfsa-acc-aha-statement-addresses-concerns-re-using-raas-antagonists-in-covid-19

https://www.escardio.org/Councils/Council-on-Hypertension-(CHT)/News/position-statement-of-the-esc-council-on-hypertension-on-ace-inhibitors-and-ang

https://www.eshonline.org/spotlights/esh-statement-on-covid-19/

https://www.sac.org.ar/institucional/posicion-de-la-sociedad-argentina-de-cardiologia-sobre-los-pacientes-portadores-de-hipertension-arterial-y-o-insuficiencia-cardiaca-en-tratamiento-con-farmacos-que-actuan-sobre-el-sistema-renina-angio/

Force ADT, Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Ferguson ND, Caldwell E, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. JAMA. 2012;307:2526-33.

Gattinoni L, Marini JJ, Pesenti A, Quintel M, Mancebo J, Brochard L. The "baby lung" became an adult. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:663-73.

Brochard L, Slutsky A, Pesenti A. Mechanical Ventilation to Minimize Progression of Lung Injury in Acute Respiratory Failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195:438-42.

Gattinoni L, Chiumello D, Caironi P, Busana M, Romitti F, Brazzi L, et al. COVID-19 pneumonia: different respiratory treatments for different phenotypes? Intensive Care Med. 2020; 46:1099-1102

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395:1054-62.

Marini JJ, Rocco PRM, Gattinoni L. Static and Dynamic Contributors to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury in Clinical Practice. Pressure, Energy, and Power. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201:767-74.

Marini JJ, Hotchkiss JR, Broccard AF. Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular and airspace linkage in ventilator-induced lung injury. Crit Care. 2003;7:435-44.

Zhang JJ, Dong X, Cao YY, Yuan YD, Yang YB, Yan YQ, et al. Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy. 2020 Feb 19. doi: 10.1111/all.14238. Online ahead of print.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020; 323:1061-1069

Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, Cai Y, Liu T, Yang F, et al. Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol. 2020. Mar 25:e200950. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.0950. Online ahead of print.

Wang Z, Yang B, Li Q, Wen L, Zhang R. Clinical Features of 69 Cases with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020. Mar 16;ciaa272. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa272. Online ahead of print.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395:507-13.

Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, Winskill P, Whittaker C, Imai N, et al. Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20:669-677

Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-Fatality Rate and Characteristics of Patients Dying in Relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA. 2020 Mar 23. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4683. Online ahead of print..

Porcheddu R, Serra C, Kelvin D, Kelvin N, Rubino S. Similarity in Case Fatality Rates (CFR) of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2 in Italy and China. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020;14:125-8.

https://www.argentina.gob.ar/coronavirus/informe-diario 17/06/2020

Li B, Yang J, Zhao F, Zhi L, Wang X, Liu L, et al. Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular metabolic diseases on COVID-19 in China. Clin Res Cardiol. 2020;109:531-8.

Emami A, Javanmardi F, Pirbonyeh N, Akbari A. Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):e35.

Grasselli G, Zangrillo A, Zanella A, Antonelli M, Cabrini L, Castelli A, et al. Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of 1591 Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 Admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy. JAMA. 2020; 323:1574-1581

Costa I, Bittar CS, Rizk SI, Araujo Filho AE, Santos KAQ, Machado TIV, et al. The Heart and COVID-19: What Cardiologists Need to Know. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114:805-816

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1708-20.

Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, Wu X, Zhang L, He T, et al. Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020. Mar 27;e201017. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017. Online ahead of print.

Lippi G, Wong J, Henry BM. Hypertension in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pooled analysis. Pol Arch Intern Med. 2020;130:304-9.

Huang I, Lim MA, Pranata R. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia - A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14:395-403.

Simonnet A, Chetboun M, Poissy J, Raverdy V, Noulette J, Duhamel A, et al. High prevalence of obesity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2020. Apr 9;10.1002/oby.22831. doi: 10.1002/oby.22831. Online ahead of print.

Sattar N, McInnes IB, McMurray JJV. Obesity a Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19 Infection: Multiple Potential Mechanisms. Circulation. 2020 Apr 22. doi: 10.1161 /CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047659. Online ahead of print.

Vardavas CI, Nikitara K. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis. 2020;18:20.

Patanavanich R, Glantz S. Smoking is Associated with COVID-19 Progression: A Meta-Analysis. medRxiv 2020.04.13.20063669; DOI:10.1101/2020.04.13.20063669.

Liu W, Tao ZW, Wang L, Yuan ML, Liu K, Zhou L, et al. Analysis of factors associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease. Chin Med J (Engl). 2020;133:1032-8.

Lighter J, Phillips M, Hochman S, Sterling S, Johnson D, Francois F, et al. Obesity in patients younger than 60 years is a risk factor for Covid-19 hospital admission. Clin Infect Dis. 2020. Apr 9;ciaa415. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa415. Online ahead of print.

CDC Center for Disesase Control and Prevention. Provisional Death Counts for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/index.htm

Hendren NS, Drazner MH, Bozkurt B, Cooper LT, Jr. Description and Proposed Management of the Acute COVID-19 Cardiovascular Syndrome. Circulation. 2020; 141:1903-1914

Oudit GY, Kassiri Z, Jiang C, Liu PP, Poutanen SM, Penninger JM, et al. SARS-coronavirus modulation of myocardial ACE2 expression and inflammation in patients with SARS. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39:618-25.

Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology. Semin Immunopathol. 2017;39:529-39.

Madjid M, Miller CC, Zarubaev VV, Marinich IG, Kiselev OI, Lobzin YV, et al. Influenza epidemics and acute respiratory disease activity are associated with a surge in autopsy-confirmed coronary heart disease death: results from 8 years of autopsies in 34,892 subjects. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:1205-10.

Kwong JC, Schwartz KL, Campitelli MA, Chung H, Crowcroft NS, Karnauchow T, et al. Acute Myocardial Infarction after Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Infection. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:345-53.

Smeeth L, Thomas SL, Hall AJ, Hubbard R, Farrington P, Vallance P. Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke after acute infection or vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2611-8.

Wei JF, Huang FY, Xiong TY, Liu Q, Chen H, Wang H, et al. Acute myocardial injury is common in patients with covid-19 and impairs their prognosis. Heart. 2020 Apr 30;heartjnl-2020-317007. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317007. Online ahead of print.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395:497-506.

ESC Guidance for the Diagnosis and Management of CV Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic. https://www.escardio.org/Education/COVID-19-and-Cardiology/ESC-COVID-19-Guidance.

Mahmud E, Dauerman HL, Welt FG, Messenger JC, Rao SV, Grines C, et al. Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020. Apr 21:S0735-1097(20)35026-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.04.039. Online ahead of print.

Mehra MR, Ruschitzka F. COVID-19 Illness and Heart Failure: A Missing Link? JACC Heart Fail. 2020;8:512-4.

Tavazzi G, Pellegrini C, Maurelli M, Belliato M, Sciutti F, Bottazzi A, et al. Myocardial localization of coronavirus in COVID-19 cardiogenic shock. Eur J Heart Fail. 2020;22:911-5.

Liu K, Fang YY, Deng Y, Liu W, Wang MF, Ma JP, et al. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province. Chin Med J (Engl). 2020;133:1025-31.

Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8:420-2.

Liu Y, Yang Y, Zhang C, Huang F, Wang F, Yuan J, et al. Clinical and biochemical indexes from 2019-nCoV infected patients linked to viral loads and lung injury. Sci China Life Sci. 2020;63:364-74.

Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46:846-8.

Kuhl U, Pauschinger M, Seeberg B, Lassner D, Noutsias M, Poller W, et al. Viral persistence in the myocardium is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction. Circulation. 2005;112:1965-70.

Chen C, Zhou Y, Wang DW. SARS-CoV-2: a potential novel etiology of fulminant myocarditis. Herz. 2020;45:230-2.

Fried JA, Ramasubbu K, Bhatt R, Topkara VK, Clerkin KJ, Horn E, et al. The Variety of Cardiovascular Presentations of COVID-19. Circulation. 2020; 141:1930-1936

Sala S, Peretto G, Gramegna M, Palmisano A, Villatore A, Vignale D, et al. Acute myocarditis presenting as a reverse Tako-Tsubo syndrome in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection. Eur Heart J. 2020;41:1861-2.

Shi Z, Fu W. Diagnosis and treatment recommendation for novel coronavirus pneumonia related isolated distal deep vein thrombosis. Shanghai Medical Journal, 2020. Available: http:// kns. cnki. net/ kcms/ detail/ 31. 1366. R. 20200225. 1444. 004. Html

Klok FA, Kruip M, van der Meer NJM, Arbous MS, Gommers D, Kant KM, et al. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. Thromb Res. 2020.

Poissy J, Goutay J, Caplan M, Parmentier E, Duburcq T, Lassalle F, et al. Pulmonary Embolism in COVID-19 Patients: Awareness of an Increased Prevalence. Circulation. 2020.

Guzik TJ, Mohiddin SA, Dimarco A, Patel V, Savvatis K, Marelli-Berg FM, et al. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options. Cardiovasc Res. 2020.

Lala A, Johnson K, Januzzi J , Russak A, Paranjpe I, Fuster V. Prevalence and Impact of Myocardial Injury in Patients Hospitalized with COVID- medRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.20.20072702.

Gao L, Jiang D, Wen XS, Cheng XC, Sun M, He B, et al. Prognostic value of NT-proBNP in patients with severe COVID-19. Respir Res. 2020;21(1):83.

Recomendaciones de la Asociación de Insuficiencia Cardíaca de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología https://secardiologia.es/multimedia/directos-online/11481-implicaciones-de-covid-19-para-el-paciente-con-insuficiencia-cardiaca-trasplante-cardiaco-y-asistencia-ventricular

Ministerio de Sanidad. Procedimiento de actuación frente a casos de infección por

el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Disponible en: https: // www.mscbs.gob.es /profesionales/ saludPublica/ccayes/alertasActual/nCov.

Garcia S, Albaghdadi MS, Meraj PM, Schmidt C, Garberich R, Jaffer FA, et al. Reduction in ST-Segment Elevation Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory Activations in the United States during COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Jun 9;75(22):2871-2872. doi: 10.1016 / j.jacc.2020.04.011. Epub 2020 Apr 10..

deShazo RD, Parker SB. Lessons Learned from Mississippi's Telehealth Approach to Health Disparities. Am J Med. 2017;130:403-8.

Comin-Colet J, Enjuanes C, Verdu-Rotellar JM, Linas A, Ruiz-Rodriguez P, Gonzalez-Robledo G, et al. Impact on clinical events and healthcare costs of adding telemedicine to multidisciplinary disease management programmes for heart failure: Results of a randomized controlled trial. J Telemed Telecare. 2016;22:282-95.

GESICA Investigators. Randomised trial of telephone intervention in chronic heart failure: DIAL trial. BMJ. 2005;331:425.

Nord G, Rising KL, Band RA, Carr BG, Hollander JE. On-demand synchronous audio video telemedicine visits are cost effective. Am J Emerg Med. 2019;37:890-4.

Gorodeski EZ, Goyal P, Cox ZL, Thibodeau JT, Reay RE, Rasmusson K, et al. Virtual Visits for Care of Patients with Heart Failure in the Era of COVID-19: A Statement from the Heart Failure Society of America. J Card Fail. 2020. Apr 18;S1071-9164(20)30367-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.04.008. Online ahead of print.

Hollander JE, Carr BG. Virtually Perfect? Telemedicine for Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1679-81.

Boyarsky BJ, Po-Yu Chiang T, Werbel WA, Durand CM, Avery RK, Getsin SN, et al. Early impact of COVID-19 on transplant center practices and policies in the United States. Am J Transplant. 2020. Apr 13;10.1111/ajt.15915. doi: 10.1111/ajt.15915. Online ahead of print.

https://cresi.incucai.gov.ar/download 28/04/2020

Ren ZL, Hu R, Wang ZW, Zhang M, Ruan YL, Wu ZY, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of heart transplant recipients during the 2019 coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China: A descriptive survey report. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2020;39:412-7.

Fernandez-Ruiz M, Andres A, Loinaz C, Delgado JF, Lopez-Medrano F, San Juan R, et al. COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients: A single-center case series from Spain. Am J Transplant. 2020. Apr 16. doi: 10.1111/ajt.15929. Online ahead of print.

Woolley AE, Mehra MR. Dilemma of organ donation in transplantation and the COVID-19 pandemic. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2020;39:410-1.

Price LC, Wort SJ. Pulmonary hypertension in ARDS: inflammation matters! Thorax. 2017;72:396-7.

Campo A, Mathai SC, Le Pavec J, Zaiman AL, Hummers LK, Boyce D, et al. Outcomes of hospitalisation for right heart failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2011;38:359-67.

Horn EM, Chakinala M, Oudiz R, Joseloff E, Rosenzweig EB. Could pulmonary arterial hypertension patients be at a lower risk from severe COVID-19? Pulm Circ. 2020;10(2):2045894020922799.

Ryan JJ, Melendres-Groves L, Zamanian RT, Oudiz RJ, Chakinala M, Rosenzweig EB, et al. Care of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Pulm Circ. 2020;10(2):2045894020920153.

Farha S. COVID-19 and pulmonary hypertension. Cleve Clin J Med. 2020. May 11;ccc021. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.87a.ccc021. Online ahead of print.

Liverpool Drug interactions group. Interactions with experimental COVID-19 therapies. University of Liverpool. 9 April 2020

Hoeper MM, Benza RL, Corris P, de Perrot M, Fadel E, Keogh AM, et al. Intensive care, right ventricular support and lung transplantation in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2019;53(1) :1801906.

Capon SM, Goldfinger D. Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction, a paradigm of the systemic inflammatory response: new insights into pathophysiology and treatment. Transfusion. 1995;35:513-20.

Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ, et al. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet. 2020;395:1033-4.

Marongiu F, Grandone E, Barcellona D. Pulmonary thrombosis in 2019-nCoV pneumonia? J Thromb Haemost. 2020; 18:1511-1513

Antoniak S. The coagulation system in host defense. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2018;2:549-57.

Stroo I, Ding C, Novak A, Yang J, Roelofs J, Meijers JCM, et al. Inhibition of the extrinsic or intrinsic coagulation pathway during pneumonia-derived sepsis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018;315:L799-L809.

Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18:844-7.

Lippi G, Plebani M, Henry BM. Thrombocytopenia is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections: A meta-analysis. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;506:145-8.

Greene R. Pulmonary vascular obstruction in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. J Thorac Imaging. 1986;1:31-8.

Maier CL, Truong AD, Auld SC, Polly DM, Tanksley CL, Duncan A. COVID-19-associated hyperviscosity: a link between inflammation and thrombophilia? Lancet. 2020; 395:1758-1759

Gupta N, Zhao YY, Evans CE. The stimulation of thrombosis by hypoxia. Thromb Res. 2019;181:77-83.

Bellosta R, Luzzani L, Natalini G, Pegorer MA, Attisani L, Cossu LG, et al. Acute limb ischemia in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. J Vasc Surg. 2020 Apr 29;S0741-5214(20)31080-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2020.04.483. Online ahead of print.

Cui S, Chen S, Li X, Liu S, Wang F. Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost. 2020; 18:1421-1424

Zhang Y, Xiao M, Zhang S, Xia P, Cao W, Jiang W, et al. Coagulopathy and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:e38.

Jones VG, Mills M, Suarez D, Hogan CA, Yeh D, Segal JB, et al. COVID-19 and Kawasaki Disease: Novel Virus and Novel Case. Hosp Pediatr. 2020; 10:537-540

Yao XH, Li TY, He ZC, Ping YF, Liu HW, Yu SC, et al. [A pathological report of three COVID-19 cases by minimal invasive autopsies]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2020;49:411-7.

Dolhnikoff M, Duarte-Neto AN, de Almeida Monteiro RA, Ferraz da Silva LF, Pierre de Oliveira E, Nascimento Saldiva PH, et al. Pathological evidence of pulmonary thrombotic phenomena in severe COVID-19. J Thromb Haemost. 2020; 18:1517-1519

Fox SE, Akmatbekov A, Harbert JL, Li G, Quincy Brown J, Vander Heide RS. Pulmonary and cardiac pathology in African American patients with COVID-19: an autopsy series from New Orleans. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 May 27;S2213-2600(20)30243-5. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30243-5. Online ahead of print.

Tang N, Bai H, Chen X, Gong J, Li D, Sun Z. Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18:1094-9.

Thachil J. The versatile heparin in COVID-19. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18:1020-2.

Thachil J, Tang N, Gando S, Falanga A, Cattaneo M, Levi M, et al. ISTH interim guidance on recognition and management of coagulopathy in COVID-19. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18:1023-6.

Helms J, Tacquard C, Severac F, Leonard-Lorant I, Ohana M, Delabranche X, et al. High risk of thrombosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 2020; 46:1089-1098

Elfiky AA. Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19. Life Sci. 2020;248:117477.

Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, Garner P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med. 2006;3(9):e343.

DeCarolis DD, Westanmo AD, Chen YC, Boese AL, Walquist MA, Rector TS. Evaluation of a Potential Interaction Between New Regimens to Treat Hepatitis C and Warfarin. Ann Pharmacother. 2016;50(11):909-17.

Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, Diaz G, Asperges E, Castagna A, et al. Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020.

Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB. Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. JAMA. 2020.

Borba MGS, Val FFA, Sampaio VS, Alexandre MAA, Melo GC, Brito M, et al. Effect of High vs Low Doses of Chloroquine Diphosphate as Adjunctive Therapy for Patients Hospitalized With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(4):e208857.

Geleris J, Sun Y, Platt J, Zucker J, Baldwin M, Hripcsak G, et al. Observational Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020.

Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, Hoang VT, Meddeb L, Mailhe M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020:105949.

Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends. 2020;14(1):72-3.

Mercuro NJ, Yen CF, Shim DJ, Maher TR, McCoy CM, Zimetbaum PJ, et al. Risk of QT Interval Prolongation Associated With Use of Hydroxychloroquine With or Without Concomitant Azithromycin Among Hospitalized Patients Testing Positive for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020.

Tisdale JE, Jaynes HA, Kingery JR, Mourad NA, Trujillo TN, Overholser BR, et al. Development and validation of a risk score to predict QT interval prolongation in hospitalized patients. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2013;6(4):479-87.

Brotman D, Girod J, Garcia M, Patel J, Gupta M, Posch A et al. Effects of Short-Term Glucocorticoids on Cardiovascular Biomarkers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 3202–3208, 2005.

Miró O, Takagi K, Gayat E, Llorens P, Martín-Sánchez F, Jacob J et al. CORT-AHF Study Effect on Outcomes of Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy During Early Management Acute Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol HF 2019;7:834–45


Full Text

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Licencia Creative Commons
The documents published in this journal are under the licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-Compartir-Igual 2.5 Argentina.

Revista argentina de cardiología. ISSN en línea 1850-3748. Argentine journal of cardiology (English ed. Online ISSN 2314-2286) Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología. Azcuénaga 980 (C1115AAD),Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, República Argentina. Tel. (54 11) 4961-6027/8/9 Fax: 4961-6020 www.sac.org.ar revista@sac.org.ar