Etiologic Diagnosis of Cardiomyopathy in Heart Transplant Recipients. Agreement Between Pre-transplant Clinical Diagnosis and Pathology

Ivan Constantin, Santiago Del Castillo, Tomás Vita, Mercedes del P. Iacino, Juan M. Valle Raleigh, Rodolfo Pizarro, Ricardo G. Marenchino, Norberto Vulcano, Hernán J. García Rivello, César A. Belziti

Abstract


Introduction: Etiologic diagnosis in patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy can be challenging. A large number of patients remain undiagnosed despite a thorough evaluation, so they are classified as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies.Objectives: To describe the etiology of cardiomyopathy in heart transplant recipients according to pretransplant clinical diagnosis and its degree of agreement with the anatomopathological diagnosis of the explanted heart.Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively transplanted patients in a high complexity hospital of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires from 2003 to the end of 2013. An agreement analysis between pretransplantation clinical diagnosis and anatomopathological diagnosis of the explanted heart was done using the kappa coefficient.Results: One-hundred patients with mean age of 49.7 ± 12.5 years at the time of transplantation and median ejection fraction of 26.6% were analyzed. The most common pretransplant clinical diagnosis was idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (37%), followed by ischemic-necrotic cardiomyopathy (32%) and Chagas cardiomyopathy (10%). The most common histopathological diagnoses were ischemic-necrotic cardiomyopathy (35%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (10%), Chagas cardiomyopathy (10%) and myocarditis (8%); a causal diagnosis was not reached in 25% of cases (idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy). The kappa coefficient was 0.64 (CI 0.52-0.76).Conclusions: Approximately one third of patients reach transplantation without an etiologic diagnosis. Anatomopathological analysis allows identifying the cause in more than half of these patients. Although the correlation between pretransplant diagnosis and pathological anatomy was statistically adequate, a significant percentage of patients could benefit from a more specific etiologic diagnosis, which may have prognostic, therapeutic and/or family assessment implications.

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Revista argentina de cardiología. ISSN en línea 1850-3748. Argentine journal of cardiology (English ed. Online ISSN 2314-2286) Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología. Azcuénaga 980 (C1115AAD),Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, República Argentina. Tel. (54 11) 4961-6027/8/9 Fax: 4961-6020 www.sac.org.ar revista@sac.org.ar