Shallot virus X: a hardly known pathogen of the genus Allium

Roberto Granda Jaramillo

Resumen


Crops belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family are economically important and are widely cultivated around the globe. Viruses from the genera Potyvirus, Carlavirus y Allexivirus are the causal agents of some of the most problematic diseases of Amaryllidaceae. Shallot virus X (ShVX) is an Allexivirus that was first discovered in Russia in the nineties and it has since been described worldwide. The virus, which can be transmitted by the dry bulb mite (Aceria tulipae), affects virtually all members of the genus Allium and is a potential cause for the reduction in yields for these crops. Shallot virus X is a positive-sense single-stranded monopartite RNA virus that contains six open reading frames (ORFs). ORF4 codes for a protein of unknown function with a low percentage of identity with homologous genes from other viruses. The virus may be detected by serological or molecular methods. Management methods for crops infected by ShVX are not well described, furthermore, research involving the effects of the virus on Allium yields is scarce. A comprehensive understanding of the fisiological and molecular mechanisms used by the virus to infect his hosts will contribute to the development of methods for controling the pathogen in the field. This review explores the basic biology of ShVX, its distribution, transmision, morphology, and diagnosis.


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